Avocado is tropical evergreen tree that can grow 40 to 80 feet tall. The leaves are large, leathery, and deep green with paler veins, and they live for 2 to 3 years. Mature trees will shed a portion of their aging leaves each spring during the flowering period. Some varieties drop more than others during this time. New leaves will develop almost immediately. The avocado fruit is a large berry. Other names for the fruit are alligator pear and aguacate (Spanish). Avocados have more potassium than do bananas and are a good source of vitamins K, E, and B, especially B6 and B5. The flesh is about 15 percent oil or fat, much of which is in the healthy, monounsaturated form. The fruit has been studied for its role in lowering cholesterol and limiting certain forms of oral cancer.
Scientific name: Persea americana
Common name: Avocado
How to grow and maintain Avocado:
Avocados developing is fruitful in an assortment of soil sorts, including red mud, sand, volcanic topsoil, rough soils rich in iron and aluminum, and limestone. Regardless of what kind of soil is picked, avocado development requires profound, all around depleted soil with great ventilation in light of the fact that the roots are delicate to anaerobic conditions. Seepage is fundamental since avocados can’t endure any extreme soil dampness or even concise waterlogging. Additionally, make sure to keep the dirt inside the pH scope of 5.0 – 7.0 for effective development and fruit yield..
plant the avocado trees 23 – 30 feet (7 – 9 m) or more away from other trees or buildings. Growing avocado trees requires full sun, and if trees are planted too close to buildings or other trees, they may be shaded, which would result in unusual growth or lack of fruit. Since avocados are not cold tolerant, pick a warm area to plant that is safe from flooding.
Water your tree frequently and allow it to have a deep soak or two. However, don’t let it sit in water, as it can grow fungus and the like. You’ll know if your tree is being over-watered if the leaves turn yellow. If this happens, just let the plant dry out for a few days.
Avocados growth depends on nitrogen and zinc, which are both required in different amounts. Fertilize with 1.5 – 2.0 pounds (680 – 900 g) of nitrogen and 0.5 pounds (227 g) of zinc sulfate per tree per year. Common fertilizers with nitrogen are calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, urea, and calcium nitrate. Most houseplant fertilizers contain zinc, but check the label and add in zinc if the fertilizer does not already have it.
To determine whether the avocados are mature, pick a couple of fruit and set them inside the house out of direct sun. A mature fruit will soften in 3 to 8 days. If the fruit doesn’t soften, pick fruit again every week or so until they soften. Check soft fruit for eating quality. Summer-maturing avocados will begin to drop heavily because of disease as they mature. Some types do not always soften well under Texas conditions.
Pests and diseases:
Avocado trees are prone to getting attacked by insects, such as the avocado looper (Epimecis detexta), pyriform scale (Protopulvinaria pyriformis), avocado red mites (Oligonychus yothersi), and avocado lace bugs (Acysta perseae). These insects do not pose a significant obstacle to fruit production, but they should be controlled if found in large populations.